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Binocular Vision Services

As part of our full service optometric care, we now offer binocular vision services, including assessment and treatment of vision-related learning difficulties, visual symptoms associated with head trauma, and improved visual performance for athletes.


What is Binocular Vision (BV)?
The ability to use both eyes together efficiently and effectively to navigate in the world around them and gain meaning from the visual world.

Symptoms of a BV problem?
• headaches
• double vision
• poor reading skills
• fatigue or inability to sustain focus
• eye turn or lazy eye
• dizziness/nausea
• reduced hand-eye coordination
• reduced vision-body movement coordination

What is Vision Therapy (VT)?
A program of visual training that is devoted to developing, improving, and enhancing people’s visual performance. It may be focused on remediating visual difficulties or improving visual performance.


Meet Dr. Mark Kahrhoff

Dr. Kahrhoff joined Complete Vision Care in 2009. Prior to joining, he served in the USAF at Keesler Air Force Base, where he founded a specialty contact lens service and directed the Student Extern Program with responsibility for clinical training of optometry students from across the country.

Dr. Kahrhoff has taught at the University of Missouri College of Optometry in the areas of systemic and ocular pharmacology, ocular anatomy and physiology, physiological optics, and problem-based clinical analysis.  He has developed contact lens education programs for Air Force optometrists and ophthalmologists and lectured military physicians on evaluation of eye trauma.

Dr. Kahrhoff is a lead author and inventor on multiple patent applications filed with the US Patent Office for innovations in ocular drug delivery and regenerative ocular medicine.  Dr. Kahrhoff was among the first optometrists to provide platelet rich plasma therapy to patients with dry eye diseases. 

He is a co-inventor of "The Electronic Eyelid," a prosthetic blinking device designed for a child who had lost his ability to blink due a brain tumor and "The Freedom Reader," a low vision aid that converted printed text to speech. Dr. Kahrhoff is also the creator of the A.M.P. System for visual neurocognitive training and to enhance visual performance for learning, sports and visual rehabilitation.
Dr. Kahrhoff practices the full scope of optometry and enjoys seeing patients of all ages.  He resides in Webster Groves.  He is currently accepting patients at Webster Groves on Wednesdays and Thursdays, Festus on Mondays, Tuesdays, & Fridays.

While not seeing patients, he enjoys spending time with his wife and children.

Mark Kahrhoff, OD
Checklist Of Observable Clues

Behavioral Signs of Visual Problems

  • Eye Movement Abilities​​​
    • Head turns as reads across page
    • Loses place frequently during reading
    • Needs finger or marker to keep place
    • Short attention span in reading or copying
    • Frequently omits words
    • Writes up- or downhill on paper
    • Rereads or skips lines unknowingly

  • Eye Teaming Abilities
    • Repeats letters within words
    • Omits letters, numbers or phrases
    • Misaligns digits in number columns
    • Squints, closes or covers one eye
    • Tilts head extremely while working at desk

  • Eye-Hand Coordination Abilities
    • Must feel things “to get the idea”
    • Eyes not used to “steer” hand movements (extreme lack of orientation, placement of words or drawings on page)
    • Writes crookedly, poorly spaced; cannot stay on ruled lines
    • Misaligns both horizontal and vertical series of numbers
    • Uses hand as “spacer” to control spacing and alignment on page
    • Repeatedly confuses left-right directions
  • Visual Form Perception
    • Fails to recognize same word in next sentence
    • Reverses letters and/or words in writing and copying
    • Difficulty recognizing minor differences
    • Repeatedly confuses words with similar beginnings and endings
    • Fails to visualize what is read silently or aloud
    • Whispers to self for reinforcement while reading silently
    • Uses “drawing with fingers” to discriminate similarities and differences

  • Refractive Status
    • Quickly loses interest in reading
    • Blinks excessively at desk tasks or reading
    • Holds book too closely; face too close to desk
    • Makes errors in copying from chalkboard to paper
    • Makes errors in copying from page to paper
    • Squints to see chalkboard, or requests to move nearer
    • Blinks to clear chalkboard after reading or writing

Appearace of Eyes

  • One eye turns in or out at any time
  • Reddened eyes or eyelids
  • Eyes tear excessively

Complaints When Using Eyes at Desk

  • Headaches in forehead or temples
  • Burning eyes after reading or desk work
  • Print blurs after reading a short time
  • Complains of seeing double
  • Words move or “swim” on the page

This checklist is courtesy of Optometric Extension Program Foundation